1. Listening
  2. Speaking
  3. Reading
  4. Writing Literature


1. Shift from one listening strategy to another depending on the text and one’s purpose for listening
1.1 Use attentive listening with informative texts and analytical and critical listening with argumentative texts

1.2 Single out reasons cited in argumentative texts and assess the worth of ideas presented based on a set of criteria
1.2.1 Determine whether arguments and conclusions are logical or illogical
1.2.2 Determine the stand of a speaker on a given issue
1.2.3 Determine the assumptions underlying the arguments of a speaker
1.2.4 Pick out discrepancies and inconsistencies in supporting ideas
1.2.5 Determine the effectiveness of closing statements in arguments

1.3 Determine the information map suited to informative classificatory texts (tree diagrams), informative process texts (flow charts) and contrastive argumentative texts (grid)

1.4 Listen to get the different sides of social, moral and economic issues affecting the nation presented in panel discussions
1.1.1 Identify the speaker’s stand on an issue by noting explicit and implicit signals (e.g. choice of words to highlight or downplay assertions made)
1.1.2 Compare the stand and attitudes of newscasters and panel discussants

2. Demonstrate openness when listening to statements contrary to one’s beliefs
2.1 Take into account the context and situations that gave rise to statements contrary to one’s stand
2.1.1 Take note of cultural differences underlying contradictory views
2.2 Explore opportunities for obtaining varied views on a given issue by listening to debates and talk shows

3. Listen to important points signaled by pausing and a slow rate of speech
3.1 Identify explicit signals given by the speaker (e.g. “ this is important…”) to underscore a point

4. Process speech at different rates when listening to informative and argumentative texts
4.1 Determine what was left out and highlighted in informative and argumentative texts
4.2 Supply gaps in a listening text caused by acoustic disturbance

5. Express appreciation of award-winning protest and patriotic songs and radio plays
5.1 Listen to appreciate the sound effects and dramatic interpretations employed in radio plays
5.2 Listen to appreciate the melody, rhythm, and lyrics of award winning songs used as musical themes in movies


1. Give a persuasive talk on an issue adjusting one’s rate/volume of speaking and register to suit the topic, audience, and setting in a communication situation
1.1 Use pausing and a slow rate of speech to signal important points in one’s talk
1.2 Use explicit signals (e.g. “This is important…”) to underscore or highlight a point in one’s talk

2. Express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes implicitly through analogy using information transfer strategies
2.1 Elicit and give information using different types of questions to seek clarification and verification of responses made
2.2 Present arguments in debates and argumentative texts
2.3 Give information obtained from varied sources: talks, periodicals, mass media
2.4 Convey information using technological aids (e.g. projectors, LCD, etc.)
2.5 Negotiate using the telephone and other communication gadgets
2.6 Use verbal (paraphrase, translation, circumlocution) as well as non-verbal communication strategies in extended oral reports/discourse

3. Use conversational gambits in face-to face interactions to obtain information, express modified agreements, etc.
3.1 Conduct interviews to determine opinion on issues affecting the nation
3.2 Use verbal (paraphrase, translation, circumlocution) as well as non-verbal communication strategies and communication check to forestall and repair breakdown in communication

4. Arrive at a consensus by reconciling views on national issues and/or issues raised
4.1 Agree/disagree with assertions made by justifying one’s stand in open forum, informative talks, panel discussions, and debates on national issues


1. Gather data using library resources, newspapers, other print materials (periodicals, brochures, pamphlets) and non-print resources like audio and video tapes
1.1 Use general references in the library to gather data
1.2 Classify data from general sources of information
1.3 Get information from print media like brochures, pamphlets, periodicals and audio-video recordings

2. Adjust and vary reading styles to suit the text, one’s background knowledge of the topic discussed and one’s purpose for reading
2.1 Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis in determining the macro discourse pattern and rhetorical organization of texts
2.2 Skim to determine the key ideas, author’s purpose, and citations made
2.3 Read intensively to select appropriate details for a specific purpose from a given text

3. Interpret and transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa
3.1 Interpret and match information presented in diagrams with their corresponding write-ups
3.2 Use varied ways of organizing information (outlining, graphic representation, etc.)
3.2.1 Take down notes from a reading text using abbreviations
3.3 Organize information from a written text into an outline

4. Use titles and subtitles as a means of getting an overview of the text and linking it with previous knowledge of the topic
4.1 Assess a text in the light of previous readings
4.2 Assess advance organizers, titles, sub-titles, illustrations, etc. in the light of information given in a text

5. Use varied approaches to make sense and develop appreciation of different text types (covert dialogue with the writer, the sectional approach, discourse analysis)
5.1 Re-structure original hypothesis to incorporate new information and to use them as basis for modifying or affirming hypothesis made.
5.2 Note the use of emotion-laden terms to express opinions
5.3 Express emotional reaction to what has been read
5.4 Judge the relevance and worth of ideas, soundness of author’s reasoning, and the effectiveness of the presentation by reacting critically to what is read

6. Show discrimination in the choice of different text types designed to give information and pleasure and develop appreciation for reading
6.1 React to and interpret the content of different text types (narrative, descriptive, exposition)

7. Employ varied strategies to make sense of unknown words (word derivations, context clues, word analysis, etc.) and ambiguous sentences (e.g. processing kernel and embedded clauses)
7.1 Identify the derivation of words
7.2 Arrive at the meaning of words through context clues, word analysis (root words, affixes, compounds)
7.3 Use structural analysis of word, sentence, and discourse to make sense of a text
7.4 Note the strategies employed (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) to clarify meanings in a given selection


1. Fill out forms in line with business promotions and give information concerning group undertakings and activities
1.1 Accomplish business promotion forms
  • Warranty return forms
  • Raffle contest forms
1.2 Prepare notices, agenda and minutes of meetings
1.3 Call attention to school events and drives

2. Use outlines, maps and other non-linear texts to present information
2.1 Use concept maps (linear, bubble, tree diagrams, grids) to show relationships between and among ideas abstracted from texts
2.2 Use different types of outline (word, phrasal, clausal) to organize ideas
2.3 Make a write-up of non-linear texts used to present information

3. Demonstrate imagination in writing different text types: narratives both in text and script forms, description, definition, critiques of a movie or play
3.1 Write texts with the overall text structure (P-Sn or TRI) and generic structure in mind suited to the text type
3.2 Suit the rhetorical techniques and functions to the objective and purpose of the written discourse
3.3 Produce a unified text by using cohesive devices, coordination and subordination to enhance clarity of ideas, and the appropriate micro-discourse signals to establish meaning relationships

4. Give and respond to feedback on written output
4.1 Move ideas around for clarity of development

5. Acknowledge citations made and resources used on written output
5.1 Cite resources used on a written output in a bibliography

6. Express opinion in writing (e.g. stand on certain issues, complaints, etc.) and write summaries of survey reports on a given issue)
6.1 Call attention in writing to good/objectionable practices in open letters, letters of commendation and letters of complaint
6.2 Express in writing satisfaction or dissatisfaction over services, performances, etc. (e.g. plays, movies, etc.) in journal entries, reviews
6.3 Prepare survey forms
6.4 Make a write-up of survey results
6.5 Write a library research paper on a national issue


1. Demonstrate understanding and appreciation of varied genres focusing on the contributions of British and American literature (i.e. sonnets, short stories, etc.)
1.1 Note the form and functions of different types and subtypes of literary texts
1.1.1 Point out relationships of time, place, cause-effect, general concepts, examples, analogy, etc. used by the writer to underscore the theme of the selection
1.1.2 Point out the sequencing of details and account for such sequencing

1.2 Trace the development of character and conflict in narratives and dramas, and discuss the devices used to achieve unity of effect
1.3 Differentiate comedy from tragedy, and formal from informal essays
1.3.1 Determine the objective of the author and the means employed to attain them

1.4 Explain the use of dramatic devices
1.5. Single out the devices employed in fiction and non-fiction works (foreshadowing, flashbacks, figurative language, etc.) used by the author for intellectual, emotional and aesthetic purposes
1.5.1 Interpret and explain figurative language used to achieve certain effects and assess it in the light of its contributions to the overall theme of the selection
1.5.2 React critically to the author’s choice of words

2. Discover literature as a means of understanding mankind (e.g. the bonds/links between individual and society) as presented in Philippine, English, and American literature
2.1 Derive from literature values that last in spite of changes brought about by science and technology
2.2 React to the experiences or actions of characters in relation to real life situations
2.3 Express the belief that people can change their ways depending on their motivation and determination as shown in literature
2.4 Analyze how the environment influences a person’s character and actions
2.5 Deduce recurring themes underscored in literary pieces

3. Pick out worthwhile human experiences underscored in Philippine, English, and American literature
3.1 Single out the Eastern and Western cultural values evident in our heritage as a result of historical development
3.1.1 Express appreciation of Filipino cultural values and their similarities to or differences from English-American values
3.2 Underscore the Western values of candid frankness and humor as presented in British and American literature
3.3 Stress the importance of task-orientedness and efficiency as values worth emulating

4. State the effect of a literary piece on one’s value system
4.1 React to the worthwhile human values underlying responses to the situations in literary pieces
4.2 Point out how attitudes influence one’s behavior